Today, the use of decorative cosmetic products is widespread in our society and this practice is gradually spreading among men. In the present work, a review of the different preparations that are grouped under the denomination of «decorative cosmetics», their components, method of obtaining and quality control, as well as an approach to the evaluation methods of this type of cosmetics, is carried out.
According to current regulations, a cosmetic product is any substance or preparation intended to be put in contact with the various superficial parts of the human body in order to perfume them, protect them, to maintain their good condition, modify their appearance and correct body odors. Decorative cosmetic products are those whose function is to color or modify the color of the body area in which they are going to be applied. It is for this reason that this type of preparation is made up of two essential components, the active part made up of pigments or colorants and the vehicle, also known as an excipient.
The colorants used in this type of cosmetics must have common characteristics such as appearing on the positive lists of current cosmetic legislation, being dermatologically safe, meeting the requirements of chemical purity and presenting the appropriate particle size for incorporation.
The vehicles or excipients used in decorative cosmetic products can be grouped into loose or compact powders, suspensions, ointments and emulsions.
Cosmetic makeup is the mixture of variously colored powders or powders in suspension in a fluid medium, whose objective is to beautify the part of the body on which it is applied. The main functions of this type of cosmetics are to give color or change it, cover small imperfections due to its covering power, absorb secretions, confer flexibility, softness and give a velvety appearance. Cosmetic makeup should be easy to apply to the skin, spread evenly, avoid shine, cover minor imperfections, and not look like a mask.
Cosmetic makeup can be classified according to its presentation or the use to which it will be put. Depending on their presentation, they can be wet or dry. The wet ones are presented incorporated into an appropriate fluid vehicle.
Cosmetic makeup is also classified according to its application or use, such as facial makeup, eye makeup, lipstick or nail polish.
Within the facial make-up are the background or fond de taint or make-up, the facial powders, the blushes or blush powders. As for eye makeup, we distinguish mascara, also called “shadows”, “mascara” and “foliar encaustos”. For its part, eye shadows include compact powders, suspensions, emulsions, creams and sticks. Also included in eye cosmetics are eyeliners or eyeliners, as well as eyebrow pencils.
The current trend is the preparation of makeup with additional properties so that they are a product of continuity in the treatment of the skin. The most used active ingredients are of the anticaking type, whether they are vitamins or vegetable derivatives. Substances with a tightening effect are also added, whether they are of plant origin (proteins and their derivatives) or of synthetic origin. We can also find moisturizing active ingredients or substances with emollient properties. Sebum-regulating active ingredients or specific active ingredients for this group of consumers can be found in make-up for teenagers. We must also mention that sunscreens are among the usual ingredients in this type of cosmetics.
Types of makeup
They can be presented as powder products or as liquid or paste products, that is, incorporated into a fluid medium whose excipient is more or less liquid. Within powder products are loose powders and compact powders, while liquid products can be fluid or pasty.
Powdered face makeups mostly contain talc. They incorporate kaolin and stearates, and to a lesser extent, carbonates, oxides and colorants. By modifying the types of components and their concentration, variations in powder makeup will be obtained depending on the characteristics of the desired final product. Once manufactured, these types of products must be checked for color and odor according to the standard sample and the uniformity of the finished product.
When it comes to compact make-up, it must provide the same effect as powder make-up and, furthermore, it must not break during normal use or during transport and the detachment of the make-up must be facilitated with an applicator or puff. The same components are used as in powder makeup, limiting the components that provide excessive volume to the formulation. In this type of cosmetics, the appropriate selection of the binding substance or binder is essential, whose function is to unite the powder particles in such a way that they can be easily dragged by the applicator without the compact makeup disintegrating. The binders can be aqueous solutions of natural or synthetic rubbers to which wetting substances have been added for their plasticizing function, o/a or a/o emulsions and lipophilic substances. The proportion of binding substance in the compact make-up formulation can vary, but, in general, it is usually incorporated in a proportion of around 5%. This type of cosmetic is subjected to the same quality controls as powder makeup and once passed, the powder is compressed. In the finished cosmetic, the uniformity of the pressing, the resistance to dragging by the applicator and the resistance to breakage must be controlled.
They provide a number of advantages over powdered products. Fluid foundations adapt better to the skin, thus obtaining a greater covering effect and a longer duration of application. The bases used for this type of product are usually emulsions. Aqueous solutions of gums and mucilage’s that are more used in professional makeup (television, shows) can also be used. Obtaining fluid makeup is usually done by incorporating the mixture of powders into the aqueous phase or the oily phase, always before obtaining the emulsion. In the quality control of this type of cosmetics, the color and smell must be verified, in addition to the ph.
Eye makeup includes a large number of products, such as eyelash makeup or mascara, fluid eyeliner or eyeliner, pencils and eyelid makeup that can range from compact powder to fluid makeup. Or eye shadow.
Eyelash makeup can be of the fixed type (water resistant) and is made up of a film-forming substance, generally cellulose derivatives, plasticizers and thickeners. This type of cosmetics presents as a disadvantage the difficulty in its elimination. Semi-fixed formulas have appeared, which have a good duration and are easier to remove make-up. These types of products are usually emulsions or/a that incorporate pigments and film-forming substances.
Fluid eyeliners or eye liners are formulated in a similar way to fluid makeup, without oils and adding film-forming substances.
Eye pencils are produced by drawing pencil manufacturers.
Pressed powders, fluid makeups, and eyelid sticks are all different forms of eyelid makeup. Compact powders are characterized by the largest amount of titanium dioxide due to its great covering power and in the type and highest proportion of colorants, when compared to compact facial powders. Fluid makeups differ from compact powders because of their greater fixing power and their much more visible effect. In this type of product, the selection of the film-forming substance is important, since it will influence the degree of fixation of the finished cosmetic. Eyelid sticks are similar in composition and construction to lipsticks. They are not very appropriate for oily skin, since in this type of skin they form a line in the crease of the eyelid.
Components of cosmetic makeup
Talc is a hydrated magnesium silicate that, due to its lamellar structure, has great sliding power, which is due to its fineness to the touch. Although it is a product that is tolerated by the skin, it has a low absorption capacity, poor covering power and high gloss, which do not make it very suitable for this use.
They have similar limitations to talc for use in this application. In addition, it has a tendency to swell in the presence of moisture and risk of possible alteration. Mostly corn starch is used.
It is a hydrated aluminum silicate that comes in the form of a very fine grayish-white powder, with an unctuous touch. It has appropriate absorbent properties, in addition to being dermatologically tolerated. Its use in this type of preparation increases the absorbent and covering power, and eliminates the shine of the talc as it is completely opaque.
Magnesium and calcium carbonates are generally used. They increase the opacity and the absorbent power of the formulation. It must be taken into account that they do not exceed 15% of the formulation, since the cosmetic product would be too dry and rough with a tendency to agglomerate.
Zinc, aluminum and magnesium stearates are especially used. These substances provide a greasy touch, increase the adherence of powders and reduce the water absorption capacity. Between 5 and 15% are used.
These are mainly zinc and titanium oxides. They increase the opacity and, therefore, the covering power.
Titanium dioxide is mainly used due to its greater covering power and its great chemical stability and dermatological tolerability. Up to 30% can be incorporated.
These can be classified as dyes if they are soluble in the medium and pigments and lacquers when they are insoluble in the medium. Organic derivatives of magnesium, aluminum, barium and calcium and inorganic derivatives, mainly metal oxides, which can be, for example, iron, are used. These products must be completely soluble in water or in the fat phase and with an appropriate particle size. Those of inorganic origin are more solid to light, while organic ones provide a greater variety of shades. These products must be included in the positive lists of the current cosmetic legislation.
In this type of cosmetics, sensory analysis methods are the most appropriate, since they allow us to evaluate a series of variables that could hardly be controlled with the most sophisticated instrumental method.
The forms most frequently used in decorative cosmetics are oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil emulsions, anhydrous fatty makeups, aqueous suspensions, mousses, sticks, pencils, greasy and non-greasy solid tablets, compact powders, free powders. and suspensions.
Water and oil absorption capacity
It is the property that a powder has of retaining certain amounts of water or oil in its mass.
It is advisable to use very small particle size powders, of the order of 40 µm. The particle size of a pigment influences its covering power, so that the smaller its particle size, the greater the surface it will present to the incident light and, therefore, greater reflectivity.
When a light ray passes from one medium to another, part of its light intensity is reflected, part is refracted, and part is absorbed. The covering power or opacity of a body is greater the more the reflected light and the less the refracted light and the absorbed light.
The evaluation of decorative cosmetic products is justified, firstly, for the selection and improvement of formulations, for the identification and comparison of the quality of the finished product, for stability control and, finally, to obtain the acceptance and consumer satisfaction.
Decorative cosmetic products, due to the fact that they are applied in significant quantities on the skin, as well as the required duration of permanence on this surface, require a combination of different evaluation methods, which will be, on the one hand, of the instrumental type and, on the other, of the sensory type. In this type of cosmetics, sensory analysis methods are the most appropriate, since they allow us to evaluate a series of variables that could hardly be controlled with the most sophisticated instrumental method. As each product has certain tests, below, and by way of example, the main parameters that are evaluated in a nail lacquer will be presented (table 1).
In view of this example, it can be said that the evaluation of decorative cosmetic products is multifactorial. The parameters are difficult to quantify, but sensory methods are of great help for their analysis and evaluation. This group of cosmetics has a very complex nature and numerous parameters must be evaluated in order to know the final behavior when used by consumers.
We can conclude this article by reiterating that decorative cosmetics is an area in constant change and innovation. In addition, they are products widely used by society and in constant growth, which is why the companies involved in this sector are looking for new, better, more effective formulas, with additional beneficial effects that provide visible positive results to the consumer, who is the one who, ultimately,, will evaluate the effectiveness of these products on the skin and skin appendages.
It is one of the most used products in decorative cosmetics, together with nail lacquers. Lipsticks are dispersions of colorants in a fatty base, which is made up of a mixture of oils, waxes and fats. Lipsticks are mainly used to add color and a more attractive appearance to the lips. The application of this type of cosmetics must be simple, and provide a more or less covering film on the surface of the lip, with a shiny appearance and well-defined limits.
The most important characteristics of a lipstick are the following:
* It must present an attractive and uniform color and be stable to light and heat.
* Taste and feel must be appropriate for use.
* The surface of the lipstick should be smooth and blemish-free.
* This stick must have thixotropic properties at skin temperature to facilitate its application and the formation of a uniform film on the lips.
* It must have a good adherence on the lips for a certain period.
* It must present an appropriate physicochemical stability and a good dermatological tolerance.
The main components of a lipstick are the fat base, colorants and their solvents, and antioxidants.
It is a mixture of oils, fats and waxes of animal, vegetable or synthetic origin, which forms the basis of the lipstick. Next, we will briefly review the components that can become part of this base. Mineral oils can be used in small proportions to increase the shine of the cosmetic. If its concentration is increased, it can give rise to exudations and present incompatibilities with waxes of vegetable origin. Within this group, castor oil has been the most used. Provides shine and emolliency, once applied to the lips. If it is formulated together with beeswax, it provides resistance and a series of properties to the finished product that are difficult to overcome if it is replaced by other types of oils. The main problem attributed to it is the odor it imparts to the finished cosmetic, which can be masked with the use of perfumes and antioxidants to avoid risks related to oxidative degradation of the oil. Cetyl alcohol is used in low concentration, because it has a tendency to form exudates. Provides a velvety touch to the lips. Oley alcohol is progressively replacing castor oil in order to obtain less greasy products. It is slightly less viscous than castor oil, but slightly more so than isopropyl myristate. It is combined with other fatty alcohols depending on the final consistency desired in the finished product. Candelilla wax is used in the manufacture of lipsticks to harden the fatty phase. This wax is more plastic and less brittle than carnauba wax. When going from the liquid to the solid state, there is less contraction if candelilla wax is used. In general, a percentage between 5 and 12% of this wax is used. Carnauba wax is a high melting point wax, but too brittle compared to candelilla wax. It is for this reason that it is incorporated into this type of formulation mixed with other types of waxes to increase the resistance of lipsticks and their surface shine. It is incorporated in a percentage ranging from 3 to 6%. Beeswax is used together with other waxes to obtain a plastic and flexible mass, thus avoiding possible breakage during use. Fatty acid esters are used in low concentrations due to their lipophilicity and their greasy feel, to prevent the formation of exudates. Lanolin is incorporated into this type of cosmetics for its emollient properties. It acts as a plasticizer, facilitates the dispersion of dyes and prevents the exudation of solvents. Improves adhesion and shine of the lipstick. It presents as disadvantages the sticky sensation to the touch and its tendency to produce a certain odor during storage. Lanolin derivatives prevent these undesirable effects.
Lecithin is used as a dispersing agent for pigments, facilitating their application and adherence to the lip. Isopropyl microstate is a low-viscosity liquid component that reduces the greasy sensation of applying this type of cosmetic and facilitates its penetration. The odor that it can contribute to the finished product must be taken into account. Vaseline can be used to adjust the consistency of the dough and for its lubricating effect.
The color of lipstick is decisive for its use, which will vary depending on market trends and current fashion canons. These substances must have an appropriate particle size for their correct manufacture. The degree of purity of this type of substance must be taken into account, since it will influence both the physical-chemical characteristics of the cosmetic and the absence of toxicity.
In general, most lipstick components are susceptible to oxidation. It is for this reason that antioxidant substances must be incorporated into the formulation of this type of cosmetics to ensure the quality of the finished product. An antioxidant is the substance that exerts its function at low concentration and for a prolonged period. It must be stable to light, heat and must not present toxicological problems.
The manufacture of lipsticks consists, in the first place, of the preparation of the mixture of the fat phase and the colorants, separately. The dough is then prepared by mixing the previous phases. Finally, it is molded to the desired shape and placed in the case. The quality control of this type of cosmetics includes checking the melting point, breaking point, consistency, texture and color in the application. In the fat base, the color, smell, taste, melting point and peroxide index will have had to be previously checked.
It is a suspension of pigments in a thixotropic system, made up of a film-forming substance, a plasticizer, a resin and a solvent system. It is applied by means of a brush and, when it dries, a pigmented film of the filmgoer remains. The nail varnish must be a dermatologically safe cosmetic product for the nails and cuticles. It should apply easily, with a shiny effect and cover the nail surface evenly. It must adhere under normal conditions of use, have a long-lasting effect and not crack. The color of this cosmetic should not vary over time, both in its application and in the bottle in which it is contained. It should dry easily and be removed with an appropriate solvent without staining or discoloring the nail.
The composition of nail lacquers consists of film-forming substances, resins, plasticizers, solvents, colorants and thixotropic agents.
Cellulose derivatives are used, mainly nitrocellulose. This substance also has good adherence and provides transparency and shine to the cosmetic.
They are incorporated to give shine, hardness and resistance to the film-forming substance that has been incorporated.
The function of plasticizers is to increase the elasticity and gloss of the cosmetic, but their concentration must be appropriate to prevent the film from softening, scratching or wearing off easily.
They are of great importance in the formulation of nail lacquers, since they facilitate their application and drying. They also have the function of dissolving film-forming substances, resins and adjusting the viscosity.
They have a purely decorative effect in this type of cosmetics.
They are necessary, since nail varnishes must have a certain viscosity that facilitates their application and prevents the sedimentation of the pigments contained in the nail varnish.
The manufacture of nail lacquers consists of three phases: preparation of the base lacquer, obtaining the color concentrates and preparation of the tone.
The quality control of the finished product includes the evaluation of the color, the viscosity of the product, the drying time, the gloss, the hardness and the duration of the application.
The correct application of nail lacquers is decisive, in many cases, for its good final result. It should always be applied on dry and clean nails, since moisture and fat prevent its adherence. It should be applied in thin layers, each layer drying before applying the next.
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